RAM SS V17.01 Release Notes


RAM Structural System CONNECT Edition Version 17.01 SES Release Notes

Release Date: June 9, 2020

This document contains important information regarding changes to the RAM Structural System. It is important that all users are aware of these changes. Please distribute these Release Notes and make them available to all users of the RAM Structural System.

License Consolidation

Beginning with RAM Structural System V17.00 the licensing has changed; the licenses on the individual modules (e.g., RAM Steel, RAM Concrete, RAM Frame, RAM Foundation) have been  consolidated into a single package, RAM Structural System. See the RAM Structural System V17.00 Release Notes on Bentley Communities for a more detailed description and important instructions:

https://communities.bentley.com/products/ram-staad/w/structural_analysis_and_design__wiki/43199/ram-ss-v17-00-release-notes

For more complete and updated information, go to the RAM Structural System V17.0 License Consolidation wiki on Bentley Communities:

https://communities.bentley.com/products/ram-staad/w/structural_analysis_and_design__wiki/43302/ram-structural-system-v17-0-license-consolidation

(or go to: https://communities.bentley.com and search for “v17.00”).

Bentley CONNECT and Bentley CONNECT Licensing

See Appendix A of this document for important information on the features and capabilities provided to you through Bentley CONNECT, and for important information on configuring Bentley CONNECT Licensing. These were first implemented in RAM Structural System v16.00. If you have not already done so, you are urged to configure your licensing so that warnings are given if you are attempting to launch the program that would result in an overuse.

Installation Instructions:

If you have enabled the CONNECTION Client you will automatically be notified of the newest version and will be able to update through that service by simply selecting the update command.

Otherwise, this version can be found on the Bentley Software Fulfilment web page by logging into the Personal Portal or the Enterprise Portal and selecting the Software Downloads icon. Search for “RAM Structural System” and select the latest version.

Tutorial:

Except for minor corrections, the Tutorial Manual has not been updated but is still valid. The appearance of some parts of the program in this version may differ from that shown in the Tutorial.

Important Notices:

This version automatically converts databases created in previous versions to the new database format. Note that a backup file is created automatically when a database is converted; the name of the database is the same, with “Orig” and the version number appended to the name. The file has an extension of “.zip” and is located in the same directory as the original database.

The previous steel tables and load combination templates supplied with the program will be replaced with new tables and templates of the same name. If you have customized any Master or Design tables or load combination templates supplied with the program without changing the file names, those file names should be renamed from the original RAM table names prior to installation to prevent your changes from being lost.

Product Licensing FAQ:

Appendix B at the end of these Notes contains a description of features available in the RAM Structural System to help prevent inadvertent use of unlicensed modules. Refer to that document for more information. Note that with CONNECT Licensing, warning messages are given in the event there is no license available, so it generally isn’t necessary now to block modules using that feature.

Security Risk Advisory:

Not applicable to this release. Every effort is made to ensure that there are no security risks in the software. There are no known security issues, no issues were addressed in this version.

New Features and Enhancements:

For details on these new features and enhancements, refer to the manual .pdf files available from the Help menu in each module or from the Manuals folder on your hard drive.

DuraFuse Moment Frame Connection

The requirements for the analysis and design of the DuraFuse moment frame connection have been comprehensively implemented, with close coordination with the engineers at DuraFuse Frames. The connection is assigned using the Assign – Beams – Frame Beam Connection Types command. The influence of the connection on the joint and frame stiffness is automatically determined and applied in the analysis. The requirements of AISC 360-10 and AISC 360-16 have been implemented for the basic steel design checks, and the requirements of AISC 341-10 and AISC 341-16 have been implemented for the seismic design checks of the connection, columns, and beams. Pertinent panel zone shear check and strong column – weak beam requirements from AISC 358 are also implemented.

Frame Beam Connection Types

The Assign – Beams – Frame Beam Connection Types command is used to assign special connection types to Frame beam ends. These include Springs, Custom stiffnesses, Reduced Beam Sections (RBS), SidePlate, and DuraFuse. The dialog has been reorganized to list each separate type and its associated data on separate tabs. It has been enhanced such that it is more versatile in assigning these connections to one or both ends of the beam, and a Clear assignment command has been added, replacing the need to “assign” no connection type.

User-specified Demand/Capacity Limits

In the Steel Beam and Steel Column modules the user can now specify the limit on the Demand/Capacity ratio used in the design of steel beams and columns, using the Criteria – Demand/Capacity Limits command. Previously the program designed to a ratio limit of 1.0. This now allows the user to specify lower values, resulting in designs of members with an extra margin of capacity for future changes in loads, for example. Separate values can be specified for steel beams, steel joists, and C-Beams, with limits for both strength and deflection.

Framing Check

In the Steel Beam module, the Reports – Framing Check command creates a report that lists all of the beams that are supported by a shallower beam, listing the beam size, the supporting beam size, the location, and the reaction. This command has been enhanced; it now highlights all beams that have been included in that report so that they can easily be located. Use the View – Show Designs command to show the sizes, and then use View/Update or the Assign – Beam Size command to change beam sizes if desired. A Show Beams with Framing Check Warnings button has been added to the tool bar to invoke this command. Select this button to turn off the highlighting.

Connection Check

In the Steel Beam module, the Reports – Connection Check command creates a report that lists all of the beams that have reactions that exceed the capacity of the typical connection for that size, based on a table of capacities created by the user. The report lists the location of the beam end, the beam size, the reaction, and the capacity given in the table. This command has been enhanced; it now highlights all beams that have been included in that report so that they can easily be located. Use the View – Show Designs command to show the sizes, and then use View/Update or the Assign – Beam Size command to change beam sizes if desired. A Show Beams with Connection Check Warnings button has been added to the tool bar to invoke this command. Select this button to turn off the highlighting.

Selection with Intersect Line

In the Modeler several of the Beam commands have been enhanced to allow selection of beams using the Intersect Line command. With this command a line is drawn across one or more beams; the modeling action is then applied to all of the beams that that line crosses. For example, to delete an entire bay of beams invoke the Layout – Beams – Delete command, select Intersect Line, and draw a line across the beams to be deleted.

Story Data

In v16.01 the ability to generate story labels was implemented. This feature has been enhanced such that the story ‘remembers’ how its story data was created; if you select a story in Story Data dialog, the Use fields or Generate fields are automatically filled in based on how that story’s data was originally created. This makes it easier to make changes or to generate additional stories’ data.

Data Check Enhancement

If Story Data has been defined, the Data Check only performs a check on those layout types included in the Story Data. Previously if no Story Data had been defined, the Data Check would not perform any checks on any layout types. This has been modified; if there is no Story Data, the Data Check performs the checks on all layout types. This is convenient in the early stages of modeling because it allows you to perform Data Checks on the layouts even before they have been assigned to stories.

ACI 318 Moment Magnification

ACI 318 requires that the effects of both large and small P-delta be considered. To account for those, the Code allows the use of amplified 1st-order moments. In Section 6.6.4.5.1 of ACI 318-14, the magnification factor, d, is given as an amplifier for the 1st-order moments along the length of the member. Eq. (6.6.4.5.2) defines the calculation of d. That equation includes a Pc term, the critical buckling load, which is defined in Eq. (6.6.4.4.2). That equation includes the effective length factor, k. Section 6.6.4.4.3 indicates that “for nonsway members, k shall be permitted to be taken as 1.0, and for sway members, k shall be at least 1.0.” That is, for sway members k shall be calculated from the nomograph given for Sway frames in Fig. R6.2.5.1(b), for example, or by some similar means. In the Concrete Column module, the program used the k value determined from that nomograph when calculating the value of d used to amplify the moments in the design of sway frame columns. This was unnecessarily conservative. Based on communication with the ACI 318 committee (which has acknowledged that the current terminology is unclear) the program has been changed to always use k=1.0 in the equation for Pc in the calculation of the magnification factor, d, for sway frame columns. The rationale for using k=1.0 is that d is an amplifier of non-sway moments. So whether the frame is a sway frame or a nonsway frame, a value of k=1.0 can be used in the calculation of the amplifier on the non-sway moments.

The concrete column design report was enhanced to show both the value of k used in the calculation of the sway moment magnification factor, ds, and the value of k (1.0) used in the calculation of the nonsway moment magnification factor, d.

In addition to ACI 318-14, this change was likewise made to the program in the implementation of ACI 318-08 and ACI 318-11 (the moment amplifier was not implemented in earlier versions).

Coupling Beams and Asymmetric Reinforcement

The ability to assign reveals and separate clear cover values on the primary and secondary faces of concrete walls was implemented in v17.00. This results in wall reinforcement that is asymmetrically placed. The asymmetric placement of reinforcement has now been implemented in shear wall coupling beams.

Stress Contours

Stress contours can be displayed for walls and diaphragms with the Process – Results – Stress and Force Contours command. Contours for in-plane stresses, out-of-plane shear, internal forces, plate moments, and plate transverse shear can be displayed.

Associated with this, two new reports are now available: Wall Internal Forces and Stresses Summary and Diaphragm Internal Forces and Stresses Summary. They are invoked using the Reports – Internal Forces and Stresses Summary menu item.

In order for the contour display and reports to be available, the options to Store stresses and internal forces for Walls and for Diaphragms must be selected in the Criteria – General command.

Response Spectra Scale Factors for Plus and Minus Eccentricity

In the Loads – Load Cases command for response spectra load cases, scale factors can be specified, typically used to scale the response spectra forces down to the code-level base shears. Previously, only one scale factor value could be specified in each orthogonal direction, even if there was a plus-eccentricity and a minus-eccentricity load case in each direction; that is, the same scale factor was applied to both the plus-eccentricity and a minus-eccentricity load cases. This has now been modified; now if there is both a plus-eccentricity and a minus-eccentricity load case, distinct scale factors can be specified for each load case. This enhancement has been made to the following response spectra load case dialogs: generic Response Spectra, ASCE 7-16, UBC 97, AS 1170.4, NBC of Canada, and IS 1893.

ASCE 7 Appendix D Wind Cases Exemption

Figure 27.3-8 of ASCE 7-16 indicates the set of wind load cases that must be considered; it groups the load cases into four Cases. Two of those cases, Case 2 and Case 4, require that a torsional moment be applied. When all four Cases are expanded to account for each orthogonal direction, there are twelve load cases that must be analyzed. Appendix D of ASCE 7-16 lists conditions under which the structure is exempt from the torsional cases (Case 2 and Case 4). For example, buildings that are torsionally regular under wind load, and buildings controlled by seismic loads (with some restrictions), are exempt from the torsional cases. In the Loads – Load Cases command, the load case generator for ASCE 7-16 wind now includes an option, Exempted from Torsional Cases 2 and 4 per Appendix D. Before selecting this option the engineer should verify that it is applicable. When the option is selected, the number of wind load cases generated is reduced to four, rather than the twelve cases generated when that option is not selected.

Torsional Irregularity Report

The Drift report, available using the Process – Results – Drift – At Control Points command, has been enhanced to include a new section, TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY DATA. For the seismic and response spectra load cases in a given direction, the program determines the load case with the largest difference in drift between two Control Points, and the Load Case, Drift and Coordinate of the first Control Point, Drift and Coordinate of the second Control Point, the ratio of the larger of those two drift values divided by the smaller (Max/Min), and the ratio of the larger of those two drift values divided by the average of the two (Max/Ave) are listed for each level. This provides an easy way of identifying if a level is torsionally irregular. Values for Max/Min and Max/Ave are both listed because some Codes base their definition of torsional irregularity on one, some on the other. ASCE 7 defines a torsional irregularity to exist when the maximum drift is more than 1.2 time the average, and an extreme torsional irregularity to exist when the maximum drift is more than 1.4 times the average, so those designing to ASCE 7 should use the values listed in the last column of that report, Max/Ave, to determine if the structure is torsionally irregular. The National Building Code of Canada also uses Max/Ave, with a limit of 1.7. India IS 1893 uses the ratio of the maximum drift to the minimum drift (Max/Min), with a limit of 1.5.

Updated SidePlate Table

The table used in conjunction with the analysis and design of the SidePlate moment connection has been updated. The stiffness properties for the SidePlate MF (R=3) connection type have been increased based on recent full-scale testing and FEA modeling.  This results in increased frame stiffness and reduced lateral drifts when compared to previous versions.

Revised SidePlate Biaxial Interaction Check

SidePlate has updated their procedures for checking the strength of HSS columns used in biaxial framing configurations. In the biaxial strength interaction equation used when checking HSS columns with the SidePlate connection for frame beams framing into both axes of the column, the value of Mpc has been modified to use ZxFyRy. Previously, Mpc used M*pc = Zx(Fy-Pu/Ag), which is the nominal flexural strength of the column used in the Strong Column – Weak Beam checks.

Frame Beam Connection Type Assignment

Previously, if a connection type was assigned to a beam in RAM Frame using the Assign – Beams – Frame Beam Connection Type command, and then that beam was subsequently changed to a Gravity beam, the connection assignment remained and was displayed in the graphics, and couldn’t be deleted without changing the beam back to a Frame beam. If the column was also changed to Gravity, the program would crash during analysis. The Data Check in the Modeler and the analysis in RAM Frame have been enhanced to automatically delete these assignments.

Archive Database

Previously in the Manager there was a File – Zip Model command. It provided a way of saving a model database as a .zip file; it also included the ability to select which RAM Frame and RAM Concrete results files to include in the .zip file. This was of limited use because the results files quickly become outdated when new versions of the program are released; if the file is subsequently opened in a newer version of the program, the program ignores those results. This command has been replaced with a File – Save as Archive command. When invoked, the Save as Archive dialog will appear, with File name listed as the current database name plus the version number (e.g., “_v17_01”) plus the date (e.g., “_03-27-20”). The user can modify this file name any way they want before saving. The file extension will be .rss (which means it can be opened by the program without the need to change the extension name). The archived database will only include the model files, it will not include any of the analysis or design results files. This results in a minimally sized model file, suitable for archiving.

Reset Model Status

In very rare cases it may be desirable to reset the model’s analysis and design status to force the program to reanalyze. A File – Reset Status command has been implemented. When invoked, a notification will be given that this change will “require that the model be totally reframed and redesigned”. The model status will be changed, and the analysis and design results will be discarded. The Status lights next to each of the design modules on the Manager screen will then display as red. This command will rarely, if ever, be necessary, but may be useful if the analysis and design results appear to be out of sync with the model.

Data Extractor

The Data Extractor is invoked using the Post-Processing – Extract Data command; it provides a powerful means of extracting model, design, and analysis results data. It has been enhanced:

These templates are included as simple examples of what can be done with templates. They can be customized to suit your needs (save them to a different name), or new templates created.

C-Beam dt and Do Increment

A minor adjustment was made to the design of Castellated and Cellular C-Beams. The user specifies the increment to be used when the program is determining the best value of dt for castellated beams and Do for cellular beams. However, the starting value of dt and Do initially used in the iterative process is set based on certain parameters, and if that starting value of dt or Do is not an even multiple of the increment value specified by the user, the final dt or Do value was not an even multiple of the specified increment value. This change will have a minor impact on the final design, if any.

Concrete Beam Elevation DXF

Reinforcement splices are shown in the DXF output of the Concrete Beam Elevations. However, previously the splice was merely symbolic, to indicate a splice; it was not drawn to scale. This created some confusion. The splice is now drawn to scale, to its proper splice length.

 

Error Corrections:

Some program errors have been corrected for this version. Corrections made to graphics, reports, Modeler functions, program crashes, etc., that were considered minor are not listed here. The noteworthy error corrections are listed here in order to notify you that they have been corrected or to assist you in determining the impact of those errors on previous designs. These errors were generally obscure and uncommon, affecting only a very small percentage of models, or had no impact on the results. The errors, when they occurred, were generally quite obvious. However, if there is any question, it may be advisable to reanalyze previous models to determine the impact, if any. In each case the error only occurred for the precise conditions indicated. Those errors that may have resulted in un-conservative designs are shown with an asterisk. We know these errors are disruptive, we apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.

Manager

WALL MODULUS OF ELASTICITY IN DATA ECHO REPORT*: A value of Wall Modulus of Elasticity assigned in the Modeler would not show correctly in Data Echo report until the model had been loaded into RAM Frame after the assignment.

Effect: Report error only. Correct value would be listed once RAM Frame was invoked.

DXF Output

CIRCULAR GRID WITH RADIAL DISTANCE OF 0.0: If a model had a Radial Grid System in which a Circular Grid was defined with a radial distance of 0.0, the resulting DXF file would not open in most CAD programs.

Effect: DXF file couldn’t be used.

GAPS BETWEEN BEAMS AND COLUMNS: If the model had not yet been analyzed, the gaps between columns and ends of beams were wrong. Also, in the Defaults Utility, the Framing Plan - Misc. options settings for the gaps between beam and column, and between beam and girder were not recognized.

Effect: Inconsistent and/or incorrect gaps in DXF.

Data Extractor

WALL GROUP FORCES: The first load case in the list of selected load cases was not included in the extracted Wall Group Forces data. Typically, this meant that the Dead Load case values were missing, although if the user selected a specific set of cases to include, the first load case in their selection would be missing from the extracted values. Furthermore, the force data from only the lowest story was included; the force data from the other stories was missing.

Effect: Wall group forces data was missing from the extracted data.

3D Viewer

PROPERTIES DISPLAY:  Some properties of Type 'Other' horizontal braces did not show when selected to be displayed in the View – Members command.

Effect:  No ability to verify assignments and properties for material type 'Other' horizontal braces.

Modeler

FRAME BEAM SUPPORTED BY GRAVITY COLUMNS*:  If a Gravity column was modeled at the end of a Frame wall, and a Frame beam framed into that column, the Data Check failed to give an Error that the Frame beam was supported by a Gravity column. This configuration may have resulted in incorrect analysis results in RAM Frame.

Effect: No Data Check error was given for a condition that may have produced incorrect analysis results. Note that no error occurs if the beam framing into the Gravity column is a Gravity beam.

Steel Beam

DEMAND / CAPACITY  RATIO - CONSTANT SHEAR JOISTS*: The strength ratio displayed in the View Update dialog for constant shear joists was the ratio from maximum moment to allowable moment, even if shear controlled the design.

Effect: Although the design of constant shear joists was correctly performed, the interaction ratio displayed in the View Update dialog box only reflected the maximum moment to allowable moment ratio. If shear controlled, the correct governing DCR was not displayed in the View Update dialog box.

DEMAND / CAPACITY RATIO - BEAMS WITH WEB PENETRATIONS: The Demand / Capacity Ratio shown in the View Update dialog box and in the display of  worst interaction when the Design Colors command was invoked for beams with web penetrations designed according to US codes did not include the worst interaction from the compression tee buckling results.

Effects: Display error only. Although the design of beams with web penetrations designed according to US codes were correctly performed and the detailed report showed the worst interaction encountered, the displayed interaction in the View Update dialog box and for Design Colors did not include the worst interaction from checks done for the compression buckling of the tees. This was only a problem if the compression tee buckling of an opening controlled the design of the beam.

C-BEAM COMPOSITE WEB POST BUCKLING CHECK*: The reported demand and capacity results for the web post buckling check may not have been the worst evaluated during the member check.

Effect: Although all other limit state checks were correctly performed, the governing results reported for the Web Post Buckling check may have been incorrect. C-Beam designs governed by the web post buckling check may have been unconservative.

CASTELLATED C-BEAMS: Optimization of very long Castellated C-Beams occasionally caused the program to freeze.

Effect: Program froze while investigating the large number of openings and wider range of e. Users could not investigate the cause of the freeze using the View Update command. The optimization process should have quickly eliminated trial Dt and e configurations that did not meet preliminary checks for strength and geometry.

C-BEAM AND WESTOK STUD OPTIMIZATION: For some configurations of composite C-Beams and Westok Cellular beams, after the design was optimized,  the View/Update command may have erroneously given a message that the beam failed in deflection.

Effect: An error in the way View/Update handled the studs determined in the optimization caused it to erroneously determine that the beam failed deflection.

DEMAND CAPACITY RATIO - NO DEFLECTION LIMIT: In View/Update and on-screen with the Process – Design Colors command, the deflection interaction ratio displayed for beams where no deflection limit had been set incorrectly indicated that such beams failed deflection.

Effect: If the user created a set of deflection criteria but failed to specify any limits on deflection for a particular type of beam (e.g., Composite Unshored, Noncomposite), although the beam designs for that type of beam were correct, the display of deflection interaction ratios in View/Update or when the Process – Design Colors command was selected showed such beams as failing deflection. The error was display related only.

DISPLAY OF OFFSET RECTANGULAR WEB PENETRATIONS: If a rectangular web penetration was specified to have a Position in Web of Beam offset with the option to specify the offset as a distance from the top of the beam to the bottom of the opening, the penetration was displayed incorrectly in View/Update.

Effect: Display error only. The opening would not show in the correct location in the beam graphic in the View/Update dialog.

REPORT - BEAM DESIGN - ALL*: When the Report – Beam Design – All command was invoked for models having floor layouts that had walls, the program crashed and did not generate the reports.

Effect: Beam designs were correctly performed, and individual design reports could be obtained, but the Report – Beam Design – All command failed to generate the reports for models having floor layouts with walls.

STEEL BEAM DESIGNS*: Non-composite beams designed according to IS800-2007 incorrectly determined the bending capacity of the beams assuming they were laterally supported.

Effect: The bending capacity of laterally unsupported non-composite beams designed according to IS800-2007 was determined using provisions of laterally supported members. Beam designs may have been unconservative. Optimized designs did not include the effects of LTB.

Steel Column

AISC 360-16 SINGLY-SYMMETRIC SECTIONS: For singly-symmetric shapes the program calculates Cb based on Eq. (C-F1-3) instead of Eq. (F1-1). The program used the equation correctly when checking a user-specified size; however, when optimizing the size, the program failed to apply the Rm factor when in reverse curvature bending.

Effect: When optimizing the column size using singly-symmetric shapes when the column was in reverse curvature the program may have optimized to a larger size than necessary. In those cases, a smaller size could have been correct shown to have worked, using the Analyze command.

AISC 360-16 UNEQUAL LEG ANGLES*: The value of bw used in Eq. (F10-4) was incorrect for negative values of bw (shear center in flexural tension). This resulted in an unconservative value of Mcr.

Effect: Major axis bending capacity of unequal leg angles was overestimated if  lateral torsional buckling controlled and the bending was such that the shear center was in flexural tension. Note that this error is very rare, and only possible if the column was a hanger.

Concrete Analysis

CRITERIA CORRUPTION: If the user invoked RAM Concrete but then immediately exited it while the “Building Framing Tables” process was being performed, the concrete criteria, especially the Analysis Criteria would get corrupted.

Effect: Corrupt criteria that subsequently resulted in program errors.

Concrete Beam

ACI REINFORCEMENT FOR CANTILEVER BEAMS: When calculating the required moment capacity at the end of cantilevered beams for special seismic provisions under ACI codes, the moments calculated for the cantilevered section of the beam were sometimes incorrect.

Effect: ACI 318-11 Section 10.5.3 was not applied and consequently 10.5.1 and 10.5.2 was applied leading to a conservative design and resulting in excessive reinforcement.

Concrete Column

BS 8110 DESIGN WARNING: For BS 8110, for columns with Load/Capacity ratio greater than 1.0, the program reported the failure but no warning message was shown to specify the reason for the failure.

Effect: No warning message was created in the report or V/U dialog for columns with  Load/Capacity ratio greater than 1.0.

Concrete Wall

SPECIAL WALL Vn: For ACI-318 the shear capacity given in ACI 318-14 Eq. (18.10.4.1) was used as an upper limit on the capacity, not as the nominal shear capacity. The ACI 318 committee reviewed this section, and indicated there will be a change to the wording to clarify that that equation is the capacity to be used, not an upper bound limit.

Effect: The shear capacity of special walls was calculated per Sect. 11.5.4 with an upper bound limit given by Eq. (18.10.4.1) instead of using the capacity given by Eq(18.10.4.1) as is the intent of the code. Earlier editions of ACI 318 were similarly impacted.

FREQUENT PROGRAM CRASHES: Some users reported frequent program crashes when designing in the Concrete Wall module. Some errors were found and corrected.

Effect: Program crash when design was invoked.

COPY REINFORCING: The Process - Copy Reinforcing command was deleting the reinforcement from the Source Member wall panel before copying the reinforcement to the Target Members wall panels.

Effect: During the Copy Reinforcing command, the reinforcement in the selected wall panel was getting cleared when it was copied.

SHEAR WALL BOUNDARY ZONES: When designing shear walls, the program may have output warnings that boundary zones of insufficient length were provided, when in fact they were sufficient.

Effect: Designs may have failed when in fact they were sufficient. This affected all ACI codes.

WALL STRESSES*: Incorrect value for SVMax was displayed for load cases, and incorrect values of principle stresses (i.e., Smax, Smin, SVMax and SAvgMax) were displayed for load combinations.

Effect: Some incorrect values of shear stress were displayed.

CLEAR COVER*: The program was not using the Clear Cover values specified in Design Criteria for BS 8110, EN 1992-1-1, AS 3600 and CP 65 codes. Instead the value of 1.5 in. was always being used.

Effect: Based on incorrect clear cover values, incorrect bar placement for the design of walls in these codes.

COUPLING BEAM DESIGN REPORT: When reporting the controlling axial loads in coupling beams the program was inconsistent in the value of phiPn that was reported. This could occur if multiple load combinations produced the same maximum Pu but different phiPn values; the reported phiPn value wasn't necessarily the smallest.

Effect: Report error only, the smallest (controlling) phiPn value may not have been reported.

EN 1992-1-1 SHEAR WALL MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT RATIO: When the wall design group was a closed shape (e.g., four walls around an elevator core), the calculated cross section area of the wall group was a negative value which resulted in a Minimum Vertical Reinforcement Ratio that was also negative.

Effect: The negative values for Minimum Vertical Reinforcement Ratio caused the program to incorrectly report that the reinforcement failed that limit.

NOTE: Existing section cuts on closed shapes must be deleted and reassigned in order for this fix to take effect.

Frame – Analysis

BUILDING SEISMIC MASS*: If Ground Level was specified at a level other than Base and if the user specified that the mass at or below that Ground Level was to be combined to a level at or above the Ground Level, the program did not combine that mass as specified, it was not combined with the level above.

Effect: For the condition indicated, the seismic mass used in the analysis was missing the mass from the level at or below the Ground Level.

INVALID ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR BEAMS WITH CUSTOM, SPRING OR RBS CONNECTION*: When a Frame beam was assigned to have a Custom, Spring, or RBS Connection Type and the option to include Rigid End Zone had been selected, if the user changed the column size after an analysis had been performed the program should have modified the node locations in subsequent analyses to adjust for the difference in column depth; this change was not being made unless some other model change forced the program to recalculate the node locations, so the program continued to use the old node locations.

Effect: Incorrect analysis results. The error was generally small if the column depths were similar, but may have been more significant if the new column size was from a different size group from the previous column size (e.g., changing from a W14 column to a W24 column, or vice versa).

FRAME BEAM CONNECTION TYPES ON CANTILEVERS: The Assign – Beams – Frame Beam Connection Type command didn’t properly allow or prevent connection type assignments to be made on beams with cantilevers and on stub cantilevers. The connection graphic was also sometimes incorrect, showing the graphic at the wrong location.

Effect: For cantilevers, in some cases improper assignments were allowed (which was then caught in analysis and/or code checking) or acceptable assignments were prohibit. The incorrect graphics made it difficult to determine what assignment was actually made.

ASCE 7 STABILITY REPORT: Calculated stability coefficient for a story with no diaphragm below incorrectly used current floor height instead of using height to nearest story below with diaphragm.

Effect: Reported story stability coefficients for story with no diaphragm below was greater than it should have been.

FRAME STORY SHEAR: In calculating frame story shears, the program mishandled shears coming from hanging columns. The reported numbers in Frame Story Shear report and displayed frame shear values on screen were conservatively incorrect.

Effect: Reported and displayed values for  frame story shears were not correct if model included hanging columns.

DISPLAY OF APPLIED STORY FORCES: The program crashed when the Process – Results – Applied Story Forces command was invoked if the model included levels with no diaphragm.

Effect: Program crash.

INSTABILITY REPORTED FOR CONSTRUCTION STAGE ANALYSIS WITH FOUNDATION SPRING: If a model included foundation springs and construction stage load case was run, the program reported instability error and terminated the analysis. Foundation springs in construction stage analysis were not properly considered.

Effect: Analysis terminated with an instability error.

SIDEPLATE COLUMN MOMENTS: For columns with the SidePlate connection, if the criteria option was selected to Include Effects of the rigid end zones, the reported column moments were incorrect; the moments at the joint centerline were reported rather than those at the joint face.

Effect: Reported SidePlate column moments were incorrect when the option was selected to include the effects of the rigid end zone (that option should always be ignored for SidePlate connections, which has its own set of rules for those joints). The error did not occur if the option to Ignore Effects was selected.

SIDEPLATE MEMBER FORCES*: For frames with the SidePlate connection, if the criteria option was selected to Include Effects of the rigid end zones with a Reduction of 0%, the analysis model at the joint was incorrect, resulting in incorrect member forces and frame displacements.

Effect: Incorrect analysis results. The error did not occur if the option to Ignore Effects was selected, or if the Reduction was some value other than 0%.

SIDEPLATE CONNECTION ASSIGNED TO PINNED BEAMS*: The program created an invalid analytical model if a beam was assigned to be Pinned and a SidePlate connection was also assigned at the same end. In this case, the program failed to insert a rigid-end segment at that end as required for a valid SidePlate configuration.

Effect: The user should not have assigned a SidePlate connection to a Frame beam that had also been assigned to be Pinned, but if they did the analytical model for SidePlate was incorrect. The program now ignores the assigned fixity if a SidePlate connection has been assigned. Note that when this error occurred the analytical model was less stiff, and hence the analysis results showed greater displacements.

Frame – Steel Standard Provisions

AISC 360-16 UNEQUAL LEG ANGLES*: The value of bw used in Eq. (F10-4) was incorrect for negative values of bw (shear center in flexural tension). This resulted in an unconservative value of Mcr.

Effect: Major axis bending capacity of unequal leg angles was overestimated if  lateral torsional buckling controlled and the bending was such that the shear center was in flexural tension. Note that this error is very rare.

AISC 360-16 B1 FACTOR: In the calculation of the multiplier, B1, for P-d effects, if the axial load was tension or if the axial compression aPr equaled or exceeded the buckling strength Pe1, the value given for B1 was invalid.

Effect: Instead of a value of 1.0 for members in tension, and instead of giving a warning that the axial compression exceeded the critical buckling strength, invalid values of B1 were produced, resulting in the member being listed as failing the AISC 360-16 code checks.

AISC 360 DIRECT ANALYSIS VALIDATION REPORT: The AISC 360 Direct Analysis Validation Report in Frame Steel Standard showed AISC 360-16 LRFD as the design code when the selected code was AISC 360-16 ASD.

Effect: Although AISC 360-16 ASD was selected as the design code and correctly used in design checks, the AISC 360 Direct Analysis Validation Report incorrectly displayed AISC 360-16 LRFD.

REQUIRED SHEAR STRENGTH REPORT HEADER: The joint check report section on "Required Shear Strength" showed an incorrect label for the table column header of Mpe rather than Mpr.

Effect: Although joint checks were correctly performed, the report section on "Required Shear Strength" displayed an incorrect table column header label of Mpe rather than Mpr. The reported values were correct.

EUROCODE SECTION CLASSIFICATION: For Eurocode design of compression members the program was inconsistent in the classification of parts of the cross-section when the moments were negative versus positive, with negative moments sometimes incorrectly causing the member to be classified as Class 4.

Effect: In some cases the member was incorrectly classified as Class 4, and since the program does not design Class 4 members, it was incorrectly indicating that the member failed.

ISM

WALL ECCENTRICITY: Walls that were imported to a model from ISM may not have had an eccentricity setting for the calculation of out-of-plane gravity moments that was consistent with the values specified in the Defaults Utility; it always used the option for Distance + ½ Wall Thickness.

Effect:  Gravity moments were applied even if the user had specified no eccentricity in the Defaults Utility.  A warning was given in RAM Frame if moments were applied and the wall out-of-plane stiffness was turned off.

RAM DataAccess

Note: RAM DataAccess is a collection of functions that can be used in user-created programs to extract data from the model. These errors have no impact on RAM Structural System results; they only impact those user-created programs that used these functions.

NODES*: The INodes.GetClosestNode method could return an incorrect node for INodes collections that were filtered.

Effect: The node that was returned may not have been the closest node.

Appendix A

Bentley CONNECT Licensing – Subscription Entitlement Service

Bentley CONNECT Licensing has now been renamed Subscription Entitlement Service. CONNECT Licensing was first implemented in the RAM Structural in v16.00. This licensing monitors current usage and, if an attempt is made to use a program or module for which there is no available license, the program will give a warning. Important information is given in the v16.00 Release Notes.

More information on CONNECT Licensing / Subscription Entitlement Service can be found at:

https://www.bentley.com/en/subscription-services-portal/subscription-entitlement-service

User and Administrator instructions can be found here:

https://communities.bentley.com/products/licensing/w/licensing__wiki/37813/subscription-entitlement-service-formerly-connect-licensing

and a short guide has been posted here:

https://communities.bentley.com/products/ram-staad/m/structural_analysis_and_design_gallery/273502

CONNECT License / Subscription Entitlement Service requires all users to sign-in in order to use any Bentley programs. If you do not already have a Bentley ID, go to http://www.bentley.com/profile and select the Sign Up Now link.

NOTE: If you haven’t done so already, before using any version 16.0 or newer, the person at your company that has the role of Administrator for the Bentley products must configure the license so that it gives the overuse warnings. Otherwise, by default no warnings will be given. Instructions can be found here:

https://communities.bentley.com/products/licensing/w/licensing__wiki/38540/1---subscription-entitlement-service-for-administrators-getting-started

Review all of the information, but in particular, note the section on Entitlement Management, and in that document note the instructions on License Alerting. Generally, for License Alerting you will want to Enable Alerts, and then input the number of licenses that you own for the particular product.

CONNECT Licensing / Subscription Entitlement Service is revolutionary. It warns you against incidental overuse of the program, but when you have a temporary heavier work load it allows you to intentionally use more licenses than you own, at a fraction of the cost of purchasing an additional copy. Subscription Entitlement Service gives you the information you need to control usage and make those decisions.

Bentley CONNECT

In addition to providing the overuse warning described above, Bentley CONNECT offers several benefits. Listed here are three key features:

CONNECT Advisor

CONNECT Advisor provides links to pertinent articles, short training videos, courses and webinars. It can be accessed by selecting the Bentley Cloud Services – CONNECT Advisor command in the RAM Manager, or by selecting the CONNECT Advisor icon from the tool bar in any of the modules.

CONNECT Center

When you sign in to your Bentley account you now have easy access to CONNECT Center. This personalized portal gives you access to Usage reports, site configuration information, downloads, and Learning information on webinars, seminars and events, and includes a transcript listing the Bentley courses that you have completed. Your personal portal also lists your recent projects with a portal into analytics on that project. CONNECT Center can be accessed by selecting the Bentley Cloud Services – CONNECT Center command or by selecting the Sign In command in the upper right corner of the RAM Manager screen.

CONNECTED Projects

All of Bentley’s CONNECT Edition programs, including RAM Structural System, allow models to be associated with a project. Multiple models, from any of the Bentley products, can be associated with a given project. This simplifies the process of keeping track of work done for a project, and will enable analytics to be performed and reported for the project.

A ProjectWise Projects portal enables you and your project teams to see project details required to evaluate team activity and understand project performance.

When a model is Saved in this version the program will ask for a Project to which the file is to be associated. Projects can be registered (created) from your Personal Portal, or from the Assign Project dialog by selecting the + Register Project command.

Appendix B

Product Licensing FAQ – RAM Structural System: Blocking Use of Modules and Programs

VERSIONS 17.00 AND NEWER

The RAM Structural System contains links to three related Bentley products, RAM SBeam, RAM Concept and RAM Connection, providing design interoperability. Each of those programs have their own licenses. It is possible for a client to have licenses for some programs but not for the others. Because of the ease with which these programs can be invoked, a method of restricting the use of each has been incorporated in order to prevent unwanted or inadvertent usage by an unsuspecting user from being logged against the licenses that the company actually owns.

Note that if you have installed CONNECT versions of these programs and have correctly set up the warnings on entitlements you will receive a warning if overuse is about to occur; you may find it advantageous to rely on these warnings rather than blocking their use entirely as described below.

RAM SBeam is invoked using the Process – Export to SBeam command in the Steel Beam module. RAM Concept and RAM Connection are invoked using the tool bar buttons on the left of the RAM Manager screen:

or by using the Model or Design menu items:

If RAM SBeam, RAM Concept, or RAM Connection are not installed, they will not be available to be selected.

In RAM Manager, the Tools – Manage License Restrictions command opens the following dialog:

This provides a mechanism for the user to prevent a program from being inadvertently executed. When the RAM Structural System is first installed all of these options are selected. It is important therefore to execute this command and deselect any links for which the user wants to restrict access.

To prevent a program link from being executed, deselect that item.

If a link is deselected here and that link is subsequently invoked, the following dialog appears:

If Allow is selected the program will open, and usage will be logged. If Cancel is selected the program will not open and no usage will be logged. Settings opens the previous command, allowing the user to modify the selections of the allowed programs.

Note that there is also a link to Bentley’s ProjectWise for project management. It is available through the File – ProjectWise command. Its use is not restricted through the Tools – Manage License Restrictions command described above. It should only be invoked if you have a license for it.

VERSIONS 14.07 Through 16.01

The RAM Structural System is composed of several modules, each of which has their own license. The program also contains links to two related Bentley products, RAM Concept and RAM Connection, providing design interoperability, as well as a link to Bentley’s ProjectWise for project management. Each of those programs also have their own licenses. It is possible to have several licenses of one or more modules, and few or no licenses of other modules. Because of the ease with which these various modules and programs can be invoked, a method of restricting the use of each has been incorporated in order to prevent unwanted or inadvertent usage by an unsuspecting user from being logged against the licenses that the company actually owns.

These modules are invoked using the tool bar buttons on the left of the RAM Manager screen:

 

or by using the Model or Design menu items:

If RAM Concept or RAM Connection are not installed, they will not be available to be selected.

There is no license associated with RAM Manager, so no usage data is logged against it, but usage data is logged against each of the other modules as soon as they are invoked.

In RAM Manager, the Tools – Manage License Restrictions command opens the following dialog:

This provides a mechanism for the user to prevent a module from being inadvertently executed. When the program is first installed all of these options are selected. It is important therefore to execute this command and deselect any modules or links for which the user wants to restrict access.

To prevent a module or program link from being executed, deselect that item.

If a module is deselected here and that module or link is subsequently invoked, the following dialog appears:

If Allow is selected the module will open, and usage will be logged. If Cancel is selected the module will not open and no usage will be logged. Settings opens the previous command, allowing the user to modify the selections of the allowed modules.

Note that there is also a link to Bentley’s ProjectWise for project management. It is available through the File – ProjectWise command. Its use is not restricted through the Tools – Manage License Restrictions command described above. It should only be invoked if you have a license for it.

VERSIONS 14.06 AND EARLIER

Versions prior to V14.07 lacked the ability to manage these license restrictions, restrictions could only be achieved by deleting the module from the installation Prog directory. If you are using an earlier version and want to prevent use of a module, delete the file(s) listed here for the module to be prevented:

RAM Steel:

RamBeam.exe, RAMColumn.dll

RAM Concrete:

RAMConcAnalysis.dll, RAMConcreteBeam.dll, RAMConcreteColumn.dll, RAMConcreteShearWall.dll

RAM Frame Analysis:

RAMFrameAnalysis.dll

RAM Foundation:

RamFoundation.exe